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Subject: Priority Requirement for the use of Drug-Induced Hypnosis Interrogation Technique
1. A large number of (US soldiers) are in the process of being repatriated to (location) from the USSR, where they have been interned since their capture by the Red Army in 1945. These (redacted) will be available within the very near future for intensive interrogation. In view of (redacted) and the length of time they have been interned, as well as known Soviet indoctrination of other (soldiers) it is believed that without question that have been given the (illegible) amount of Soviet Communist indoctrination and that at least a portion of them have been recruited as Communist and Soviet espionage agents.
2. (individual) has pointed out that this may represent an extremely valuable and unique opportunity whereby tremendously valuable results might be obtained by the use of the interrogation techniques involving drug-induced hypnosis. It is felt that this represents a definable priority and that all possible effort should be undertaken to have appropriate (redacted) from this group completely and fully interrogated with the use of those techniques. We are in a position to arrange such interrogations in (location) securely and effectively.
To: The files
Subject: SI and H experimentation
SI and H experimentation and research was carried on in building 13 by (redacted) and using the following subjects: (redacted). Routine tests only were handled during this session with certain simple tests run on hallucinations and some PH of a complex nature were carried out.
The first two induction were held and averaged about 30 minutes each. The third induction, which was again run out of PH(FH?) was of interest in that all volunteers were instructed to open their eyes and act completely normal during the major portion of this trance. In this connection, all hands carried out instructions including movement, smoking, drinking cokes, conversation, etc. and were returned to sleep states by a simple touch on the forehead by (redacted). For record purposes, Miss (redacted) showed some improvement but is not yet up to the capacity of the other volunteers.
The fourth induction out of a Ph was run in which all instructions were removed and following this all subjects were questioned as to the amount of amnesia they had in connection with the third induction when they operated with their eyes open and moved about, etc. As usual, Miss (redacted) a total amnesia for the performance. Some reported a slight memory of activities and some reported they could remember all the activities. The session was concluded at approximately 8:30.
A project in the isolation and synthesis of pure drugs for use in effecting psychological entry and control of the individual.
Detection of Deception:
The determination of the physiological changes in a man which indicate deception is being practiced. Investigation of the measurement of these changes thru mechanical and electrical devices.
A study of the effect of drugs on the vestibular function of the ear and the development of side effects which indicate the possibility of psychological entry and control.
A comparitive evaluation of the various deception detecting devices on the market. There will be particular emphasis on determining the accuracy of their measurement of physiological changes supposed to indicate deception.
The development and application of drugs which will aid in the establishment of psychological control.
Drugs and Electricity:
Research work on the effects of lysergic acid on animals. Use of electric shock and the encephalograph in interrogation. Particular emphasis on the detection of prior use of electric shock and the ‘guaranteed amnesia’ resulting from electric shock.
A fundamental research problem in the biochemistry of fatigue (muscular). Consideration has been given to the extension of the project to include the biochemistry of nervous stress.
A study of the effect of fatigue and loss of sleep. (An extension of (redacted) work at the (redacted))
The group that prepared the monograph on Hunger is still working at (redacted). The monograph had a full chapter on “The psychological effects of Hunger”.
(redacted) understood to be continuing his work with an emphasis on practical psychological applications rather than the “parlor-magic” aspects which were publicized some years ago.
Reconstruction of Soviet (redacted, interrogation?):
Man: A thorough study of the Russian as an individual using many cases of defectors interviewed in (redacted).
Group Dynamics: Information has been received that this differs from most of the psychological warfare projects in that there is detailed study of the individual as a member of a group.
Psychology of Confinement: Over a long period studies were made of men living in the crowded conditions of a submarine. Certain incidental findings have been relevant.
1. Anti-histaminic drugs such as Anahist, Benadryl, and Pyribenzamine have two possibly uesful properties.
2. 1. They cause emotional instability in children; less so in adults, therefore some experimentation would be required to select the most generally disturbing one. Probably there is too little to be gained in this direction exclusively, but the other (doubtless related) property is more promising.:
3. 2. They sensitize a Subject to alcohol. People become intoxicated sooner and nearer semiconsciousness with less alcohol. (A patient of mine fell asleep and fell down while climbing a stairway; it is notorious that persons under both drugs’ influence may fall asleep suddenly if attempting to drive).
It appears that under hypnosis, even if a complete amnesia cannot be obtained a blurred or fuzzy memory can be, induced and a partial amnesia if often obtained. Some subjects seem to experience memory blank when placed in deep hypnotic states without efforts being made to produce an amnesia–but this too is not consistent.
Certain chemicals seem effective. Scopolamine, for instance, comes closer than the barbiturates although we have apparently produced good amnesias with amytal and pentothal. Some new chemicals may be valuable along these lines (LSD). However, our professional consultants emphatically support the view that short of cutting a subjects’s throat, a true amnesia cannot be guaranteed.
It should be recalled also that most drugs leave a tell tale “hangover” with the subject and while he may be very vague as to what has occurred, he nevertheless will realize that something “unusual” has happened to him. Such chemicals as LSD, mescaline etc. having weird and bizarre effects in heavy dosages clearly indicate something has been done to the individual. Particularly sensitive to drugging, of course, would be good intelligence agents since drug effects are known by all the nations of the world and we believe are very well known by the Soviets.
The A group has considered shock–both electro and chemically-induced as an amnesia-producing technique but even in this results are spotty and medical authorities are certainly not in agreement. This, coupled with the dangers involved, the clumsy apparatus necessary and the medical problems present more or less rule out shock for our use.
The A group would recommend this for research.
ACETYLCHOLIN &; CHOLINESTERASE
The constantly changing balances between these substances at innumerable points in the body, relate to the transmission of all nerve impulses. “Cholinergic” and “Adrenergic” drugs throw the balance in one direction, or the other. “Ganglion-block” drugs have special relationships. See
- Nerve Gasses
Because of their overall importance in neurology and psychiatry, any psychiatric project needs to keep track of the literature on Acetylcholin & Cholinesterase.
Amnesia for words mentioned in the hypnotic state was suggested to a somnambule. Despite subject’s inability to recognize or recall these words in the posthypnotic period, they could be determined from records of physiological changes which were made (polygraph) during the tests of recognition.
- Narcotizing Drug Combinations
Of the several in use, the best for Narco-Analysis, either alone or for partially arousing the S. from a drug-induced sleep, are the two: Methadrine or Pervitin, and Dexedrine. Methedrin may be slightly more powerful. Either can be given orally or intravenously. If I.V., then it may be wise to try a small dose first before using an average dose. Some persons are sensitive enough to be convulsed on an average intravenous dose; anyone’s convulsive threshold will be lowered. There are reports of an acute psychosis being caused by an intravenous overdose of Methedrin.
The convulsive threshold may be lowered enough to produce convulsions on exposure to Flicker, but the behavior of amphetamines is more erratic in this connection than is that of intravenous Azezol, or Metrazol.
One unsettled question here is: could enough Denzedrine (another amphetamine, more volatile) be inhaled to produce a certain Flicker-convulsion, without producing too much other effect, chiefly too high a blood-pressure? The answer seems to be “No”.
Further study of these Amphetamines is recommended.
At present this brain-center can be specifically stimulated by a current passed through wires or inserted through the brain by operation.
Such a procedure is obviously useless ^to this project, but ultrasonics or other means of radiant energy may yet be improved or modified so that a “cross-fire” (as with X-rays) arrangement could be focused on a selected small region in the brain without affecting the surrounding areas
The Amygdaloid nucleus is interesting because it has been stimulated in humans (as in first paragraph above); producing fear or anger. Monkeys’ amygdaloids have been removed; producing tameness.
Temporary inhibition of this region (possibly also of others), should tame humans.
…that a new era in medicine was about to begin .He was referring to new drugs such as DOLITRONE which are capable of obliterating pain without removing consciousness. Whether or not these new drugs may be of value to ARTICHOKE remains to be seen but theoretically at least they are of interest to us both offensively and defensively.
Many question arise in considering these drugs:
1) Is there a dissociation between feeling and thinking?
2) Is there a tendency toward euphoria?
3) Is amnesia developed (some indication here)?
4) Could it serve as a defense against torture?
5) Would these drugs have any form of potentiating effect?
6) Could they be used as a confusion agent? After–or combined
with other chemicals.
Note: DOLITRONE was obtained as a result of a trip by (redacted) and turned over to (redacted)
Patients going under and coming out of surgical anesthesia are notorious for revealing material otherwise concealed.
NITROUS OXIDE or “laughing gas” may cause uncontrollable laughing, or else-weeping, for a good part of an hour after recovery of consciousness. Not enough usefulness to us. This too can be forgotten.
CHLOROFORM is worth remembering. A good deal of literature-searching might be required, but a cleared contact told us of an American Civil War case of an agent being questions under Chloroform with remarkable success. It may be that other drugs can be fairly toxic to the liver.
(see also Deprivations)
…the antimetabolite “desoxypyridoxin” counteracts the vitamin pyridoxin (B6) and so sensitizes the subject to convulsion; thereover a means intended to produce a convulsion will do so on a shorter exposure and/or in smaller dose. If pyridoxin is counteracted rapidly and completely enough, a convulsion may be produced.
A diet naturally low in B6 could be fed, and drugged with the above autimetabiolites.
It is also possible that edibles could be grown, under radioactivity, to contain less B6 than normally.
Research in experimentation along these lines is not worth the project’s effort:
See Narcotizing Drug Combinations.
Atropin is a belladonna derivative, used sometimes in place of, or in addition to Scopolamin in a Scopolamin _ Morphin technique (“twilight sleep”).
Atropin is also an antidote, but not a good one, to the “nerve gasses.”
Few if any bacterial toxins seem to lend themselves to the project’s aims.
Botulinum toxin may have possibilities. This reporter has read too little, to say more than that its literature deserves a survey.
See Ethyl Alcohol
BLOOD ELECTROLYTES SeeElectrolytes
BLOOD POTASSIUM See Potassium See also: Vitamins
BRAIN CENTERS See Amygdaloid Nucleus Anti-metabolites
Frontal Lobe Deprivations
Isolation as means applied over an extended time, within a program of Brain-Washing, produces a Mental State of apathy and purposelessness. Whether isolation produces suggestibility when combined with other brainwashing techniques, is uncertain; a special form (see Isolation) does sometimes produce suggestibility.
Other elements of brainwashing may produce some confusion; and a tendency too readily to fall asleep. See next page.
Overall, brainwashing has the medium- or long-term objective of weakening or eradicating a Subject’s philosophy of life and his drive to pursue it, along with his allegiance and the motivation to maintain it.
A Mental State of degradation may then improve the product of interrogation, by removing the Subject’s motivation to conceal. However, in a short-term preparation for interrogation, degradation could do more harm than good.
First steps in brainwashing are deprivations:
This substance has been synthesized, and is the equivalent of the narcotic principle of Cohoba Snuff, used in the Antilles somewhat like Peyote in North America.
Study of this drug is recommended.
This drug is best known for its property of producing a cataleptic state, like catatonic schizophrenia in some respects, but only temporary. This state is abolished by cocaine, or an amphetamin; rapidly, if either of these antidotes is injected; even more rapidly if a mixture of 40% CO2 + 60% O2 is inhaled.
A smaller dose of bulbocapnin produces Under-Anxiety, a state of tranquillity which may include some degree of suggestibility.
Use of this drug in interrogation is well worth further study, both alone and in combination.